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The company underwent a ificant overhaul of its operations in the early s, shedding its electric motor and other businesses in order to focus on the industrial pump business that it had first entered in the mids. The founders brought varied experiences to the business.


Two days after her discharge by respondent company, petitioner Guy, a Negro, caused a grievance alleging "unfair action" to be filed on her behalf pursuant to procedures in a collective bargaining agreement between her union and respondent.

On February 10,84 days after the company under those procedures had denied the grievance, but days after the discharge, petitioner Guy filed a charge of racial discrimination relating to her discharge with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOCwhich, in November,concluded that race had not figured in the discharge.

Section 14 of the amendments provides that the amendments. The Court of Appeals, which affirmed, also concluded that the extension of days could not "revive" a claim that was "barred and extinguished" before the extension's effective date. Petitioners' contention, raised explicitly for the first time in this Court, that the date of the conclusion of the grievance procedures, not the date of the discharge, was the "final" date of "the alleged unlawful practice," is without merit as being contrary to the understanding of the parties themselves in the courts below.

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The existence and utilization of grievance procedures does not toll the running of the limitations period that would otherwise begin on the date of the firing, Title VII remedies being independent of other preexisting remedies available to an aggrieved employee.

Alexander v. Gardner-Denver Co. Railway Express Agency, U. Application of equitable principles to toll the day period pending completion of the grievance procedures is therefore inappropriate here. Burnett v. New York Central R. Railway Express Co. The amendments and their legislative history demonstrate that Congress intended to apply the day period to a charge such as that filed by Guy where the charge was filed with the EEOC before these amendments became effective, was still pending when the amendments became effective, and alleged a discriminatory occurrence within days on the enactment of the amendment.

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Lifting the bar of a statute of limitations so as to restore a remedy lost through mere lapse of time is not per se unconstitutional. Chase Securities Corp. Donaldson, U. Decided December 20, U. They present three contentions: the existence and utilization of grievance procedures postpone the date on which an allegedly discriminatory firing took place; the existence and utilization of grievance procedures toll the running of the limitations period which would otherwise begin on the date of the firing; and the amendments to Title VII, Equal Employment Opportunity Act of86 Stat.

Two days later, petitioner caused a grievance alleging an "unfair action" of the company in firing her to be filed on her. That agreement's dispute-resolution procedure, which is to be commenced within "five 5 working days of the commission of the act originating the grievance," consists of three grievance steps followed by one arbitration step.

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Guy's grievance was processed through the third step of the grievance procedure, where it was denied on November 18,with the finding that her termination had been in accordance with the provisions of the collective bargaining agreement. On February 10,a date 84 days after the denial of her grievance at the third stage, but days after the date of her discharge, Guy, who is black, filed a charge of racial discrimination with the EEOC directed against both respondent and Local The EEOC, in November,issued its determination and "right to sue" letter, finding that there was "no reason to believe that race was a factor in the decision to discharge" Guy.

Court of Appeals affirmed that judgment by a divided vote, F. That court felt that it would be "utterly inconsistent" with our opinions in Johnson v. Then, noting the question of the applicability of the amendments to Title VII raised by the EEOC as amicus curiae also noting, without more, that, "[s]ince this issue was not raised in the District Court by any party to the case, we are not required to consider it"the Court of Appeals stated:.

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The amendments to Title VII, increasing the time within which to file her charge to days, did not become effective until March 24, The subsequent increase of time to file the charge enacted by Congress could not revive plaintiff's claim which had been ly barred and extinguished. The dissenting judge disagreed on this point, believing that the case should be remanded for consideration of the effect of the amendments.

We granted certiorari, U. Before reaching either of those questions, however, petitioners Guy and Local assert that the complaint with the EEOC was timely filed not because of any tolling concept, but simply because the date "the alleged unlawful employment practice occurred" is the date of the conclusion of the collective bargaining agreement's grievance-arbitration procedures. Until that time, we are told, the October 25 discharge of Guy although itself an "occurrence" allowing immediate resort to the EEOC was "tentative" and "nonfinal," and remained so until she terminated the grievance and arbitration process, at which time the "final" occurrence transpired.

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While the parties could conceivably have agreed to a contract under which management's ultimate adoption of a supervisor's recommendation would be deemed the relevant statutory "occurrence," this was not such a contract. For all that appears, Guy was fired as of October 25,and all parties so understood.

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She stopped work and ceased receiving pay and benefits as of that date. Unless the grievance.

U.s. supreme court

Throughout the proceedings, both in the District Court and in the Court of Appeals, both sides appear to have assumed, as did the courts, that the date of discharge was October 25, There being no indication that either party viewed the October 25 discharge as anything other than "final," [ Footnote 6 ] there is certainly no reason for us to now torture this mutual understanding by accepting the bare assertions to the contrary raised by petitioners for the first time before this Court.

We think that petitioners' arguments for tolling the statutory period for filing a claim with the EEOC during the pendency of grievance or arbitration procedures under the collective bargaining contract are virtually foreclosed by our decisions in Alexander v.

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In Alexander, we held that an arbitrator's decision pursuant to provisions in a collective bargaining contract was not binding on an individual seeking to pursue his Title VII remedies in court. We reasoned that the contractual rights under a collective bargaining agreement and the statutory right provided by Congress under Title VII "have legally independent origins, and are equally available to the aggrieved employee," U.

Rather, he is asserting a statutory right independent of the arbitration process.

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One Term later, we reaffirmed the independence of Title VII remedies from other preexisting remedies available to an aggrieved employee. In Johnson v. In reaffirming the independence of Title VII remedies from. Petitioners insist that, notwithstanding these decisions, equitable tolling principles should be applied to this litigation, and that the application of such principles would toll the day period pending completion of the grievance procedures. This is so, they say, because, here, the "policy of repose, deed to protect defendants," Burnett v.

But this is quite a different situation from Burnett, supra.

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This Court held that such a filing was sufficient to toll the statutory limitations period, even though the state court action was dismissed for improper venue and a new complaint ultimately filed in the United States District Court. The Court said:.

Service of process was made upon the respondent notifying him that petitioner was asserting his cause of action.

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Here petitioner Guy in the grievance proceedings was not asserting the same statutory claim in a different forum, nor giving notice to respondent of that statutory claim, but was asserting an independent claim based on a contract right, Alexander v.

Burnett cannot aid this petitioner, see Johnson v. Railway Express Agency, supra at U. Petitioners advance as a corollary argument for tolling the premise that substantial policy considerations, based on the central role of arbitration in labor-management relations, see Steelworkers v. American Mfg.

Lincoln Mills, U. Similar arguments by the employer in Alexander v.

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Petitioners also advance a related argument that the danger of possible conflict between the concurrent pursuit of both collective bargaining and Title VII remedies should result in tolling the limitations period for the latter while the former proceeds to conclusion. Similar arguments to these, albeit relating to 42 U. We think the language we used in that case is sufficient to dispose of this claim:.

Petitioners contend at some length that tolling would impose almost no costs, as the delays occasioned by the grievance-arbitration process would be "slight," [ Footnote 12 ] noting that the maximum delay in invoking the three-stage grievance procedure although not including the arbitration step under the collective bargaining agreement in force in this.

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But the principal answer to this contention is that Congress has already spoken with respect to what it considers acceptable delay when it established a day limitations period, and gave no indication that it considered a "slight" delay followed by 90 days equally acceptable. Where Congress has spoken with respect to a claim much more closely related to the Title VII claim than is the contractual claim pursued under the grievance procedure, and then firmly limited the maximum possible extension of the limitations period applicable thereto, we think that all of petitioners' arguments taken together simply do not carry sufficient weight to overcome the negative implication from the language used by Congress, cf.

Johnson v.

Further reading

Petitioners contend that this expanded limitations period should apply to Guy's charge, as the occurrence she was complaining of took place within days of the enactment of the amendments. We agree. Christiansburg Garment Co. Respondent also contends that the amendment is not applicable to the charge filed by Guy with the EEOC, since, being untimely when filed, her charge could not have been "pending with the Commission on the date of enactment of this Act.

Since Congress also applied the enlarged limitations period to charges, whether or not untimely on March 24, "filed thereafter," we should not p Congress created this odd. Love v.

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Pullman Co. We hold that Congress intended the day period to be applicable to charges such as that filed by Guy, where the charge was filed with the EEOC prior to March 24,and alleged a discriminatory occurrence within days of the enactment of the Act. Respondent contends, finally, that Congress was without constitutional power to revive, by enactment, an action which, when filed, is already barred by the running of a limitations period.

This contention rests on an unwarrantedly broad reading of our opinion in William Danzer Co. Danzer was given a narrow reading in the later case of Chase Securities Corp.

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The latter case states the applicable constitutional test in this language:. What it does forbid is taking of life, liberty or property without due process of law. Assuming that statutes of limitation, like other types of legislation, could be so manipulated that their retroactive effects would offend the Constitution, certainly it cannot be said that lifting the bar of a.

Applying that test to this litigation, we think that Congress might constitutionally provide for retroactive application of the extended limitations period which it enacted. We thus resolve against petitioners their first two contentions, but resolve the third in their favor.

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The judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit is therefore reversed, and the cases are remanded for further proceedings consistent with this opinion. Vas a result of the amendments to the Act. Guy also alleged a cause of action under 42 U. By order dated ay 30,the District Court dismissed this cause of action because of a failure to meet the applicable Tennessee statute of limitations. No appeal was taken from this decision. The question of the tolling of Title VII's limitation period during the pendency of grievance proceedings was noted in our opinion in McDonald v.

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