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Minerals help power important functions in our brain and body. And magnesium has some special power for anxiety. One of those minerals is magnesium.

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Magnesium Mg status is associated with subjective anxiety, leading to the proposition that Mg supplementation may attenuate anxiety symptoms. This systematic review examines the available evidence for the efficacy of Mg supplementation in the alleviation of subjective measures of anxiety and stress.

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Methods: A systematic search of interventions with Mg alone or in combination up to 5 additional ingredients was performed in May A grey literature review of relevant sources was also undertaken. : 18 studies were included in the review. All reviewed studies recruited samples based upon an existing vulnerability to anxiety: mildly anxious, premenstrual syndrome PMSpostpartum status, and hypertension. Mg had no effect on postpartum anxiety. No study administered a validated measure of subjective stress as an outcome.

Conclusions: Existing evidence is suggestive of a beneficial effect of Mg on subjective anxiety in anxiety vulnerable samples.

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However, the quality of the existing evidence is poor. Well-deed randomised controlled trials are required to further confirm the efficacy of Mg supplementation. Magnesium Mg is an essential mineral utilized in the human body, as a cofactor, by in excess of biochemical reactions required to maintain homeostasis [ 1 ]. The biological functions of Mg are broad and varied, and include the production of nucleic acids, involvement in all adenosine triphosphate ATP fueled reactions, and modulation of any activity mediated by intracellular calcium concentration fluxes e.

Dietary intake Magnesium anxiety dosage Mg has been shown to be insufficient in Western populations [ 345 ]. This inadequate intake is linked with an array of poor health outcomes including hypertension [ 7 ], cardiovascular disease [ 8 ], and type II diabetes [ 9 ].

Depletion and supplementation studies in animals and humans suggest that Mg may play an important part in the etiology of affective mood disorders. A relationship between Mg and affective depressive states has been established for reviews see [ 1011 ]. Magnesium plays a key role in the activity of psychoneuroendocrine systems and biological and transduction pathways associated with the pathophysiology of depression.

For example, all elements of the limbic—hypothalamus—pituitary—adrenocortical axis are sensitive to the action of Mg [ 12 ].

Magnesium for anxiety: is it effective?

Magnesium has also been demonstrated to suppress hippocampal kindling [ 1314 ], attenuate the release of, and affect adrenocortical sensitivity to, adrenocorticotrophic hormone ACTH [ 1516 ], and may influence the access of corticosteroids to the brain at the level of the blood brain barrier via its action on p-glycoprotein [ 171819 ]. Experimentally induced hypomagnesemia in depression like behavior in rodents [ 20212223 ] which is effectively treated by administration of antidepressants [ 2123 ].

An impoverished Mg diet is associated with depression in humans [ 24 ]. Low serum and cerebrospinal fluid Mg levels have also been associated with depressive symptomology [ 25 ] and suicidality [ 26 ]. However, further evidence of a relationship between raised Mg levels and depressive states [ 272829 ] suggests the relationship between Mg levels and depression is yet to be fully elucidated. Further support for a relationship between Mg and affective states comes from evidence of the efficacy of Mg supplementation in the treatment of depression.

Magnesium intake reduces depression-related behaviour in mice [ 30 ] and is effective as an adjunctive treatment for depression in rodent models [ Magnesium anxiety dosage32 ]. In humans, 12 weeks intake of mg of elemental Mg has been shown to be as effective in reducing depression symptoms as a tricyclic antidepressant Imipramine 50 mg in depressed hypomagnesic elderly patients with type II diabetes [ 33 ]. Further evidence from case studies suggests Mg is an effective adjunctive therapy for treating major depression [ 3435 ]. However, the efficacy of Mg in the treatment of depression symptomology has not been consistently reported [ 36 ].

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Mood stabilizing effects of Mg supplementation have also been reported in additional clinical samples, including the improvement of clinical s of mania [ 37 ], rapid cycling bipolar disorder [ 38 ], and alleviation of affective symptoms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome [ 39 ]. Depression is often comorbid with anxiety [ 40 ]. The anxiolytic potential of Mg has been demonstrated in rodent models.

Naturally and experimentally induced hypomagnesemia elevates anxiety states in mouse models [ 12214243 ]. Blood plasma and brain Mg levels are also ificantly correlated with anxiety-related behavioral responses in rodents [ 44 ].

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Supplementing Mg levels in mice has been demonstrated to reduce the expression of anxiety-related behavior [ 3045 ]. A relationship between Mg status and anxiety is evident in humans. Test anxiety, related to exposure to stressful exam conditions, increases urinary Mg excretion, resulting in a partial reduction of Mg levels [ 46 ]. Further, dietary levels of Mg intake have been modestly inversely associated with subjective anxiety in a large community-based adult sample [ 24 ].

Magnesium also modulates activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis HPAA which is a central substrate of the stress response system.

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Activation of the HPAA instigates adaptive autonomic, neuroendocrine, and Magnesium anxiety dosage responses to cope with the demands of the stressor; including increasing anxiety. Exposure to stress moderates serum noise stress; [ 47 ] and intracellular exam stress; [ 48 ] Mg levels. Magnesium supplementation has also been shown to attenuate the activity of the HPAA, including a reduction in central ACTH; [ 15 ] and peripheral cortisol; [ 49 ] endocrine responses of this system.

Therefore, Mg may further influence anxiety states via the moderation of the stress response. A of potential mechanistic pathways have been described which may for the relationship between Mg and anxiety. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Magnesium reduces neuronal hyperexcitability by inhibiting NMDA receptor activity [ 51 ]. Magnesium is also essential for the activity of mGluRs—G-protein coupled receptors that are widely expressed in the brain [ 5253 ].

1. introduction

The action of glutamate on mGluRs receptors has been implicated in responses to fear, anxiety and panic [ 53 ]. Magnesium may additionally modulate anxiety via increasing GABAergic availability by decreasing presynaptic glutamate release [ 54 ].

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An imbalance between GABA and glutamate is associated with neuronal hyperexcitability characteristic of pathological anxiogenesis [ 55 ]. Evidence of the association between Mg and anxiety has increased interest in the potential efficacy of Mg intake to attenuate anxiety symptoms.

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Prevalent pharmaceutical anxiolytic treatments for clinical anxiety e. Therefore, the identification of new efficacious treatments to alleviate symptoms of anxiety has great utility. This systematic review summarises the current available evidence for the efficacy of Mg supplementation in the alleviation of subjective measures of anxiety. Considering the conceptual and psychoneuroendocrine overlap between anxiety and stress, the review will also examine evidence for potential effects of Mg intake on parameters of subjective stress.

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A systematic review of the effects of nutritional and herbal supplements on anxiety and anxiety-related disorders summarised the findings of three Mg intervention studies [ 56 ]. However, this review summarised the literature prior to and, since searches were limited to only two databases, likely failed to identify all relevant publications.

Therefore, this is the first systematic review of the relationship between Mg supplementation and subjective anxiety and stress. This included any general subjective measure that included subscales related to stress and anxiety symptomology. Intervention studies examining acute and chronic effects of Mg manipulations were included. Studies examining the effects of Mg depletion in the absence of an intervention or increased consumption of diets associated with high Mg content were excluded. Studies reporting effects in individuals with ificant health conditions e.

The link between magnesium and stress.

Samples recruited on the basis of mild to moderate subjective anxiety, hypertension, or subjective symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome PMSwere retained. The efficacy of Mg intake has been examined as a novel and adjunct treatment approach for depression. This literature has been adequately summarised in a of systematic reviews e. Therefore, studies reporting the effects of Mg intake in depressed samples are not reviewed here. Publications were required to be in the English, French or German languages to permit review by authors.

Studies failing to report sufficient detail to permit accurate characterisation of the methodological approach were also not included in the review. Minimum reporting requirements were sample size and composition, Mg dose and intervention length, and Magnesium anxiety dosage defined outcome measures of subjective anxiety or stress. The reference lists of existing reviews and identified articles were hand Magnesium anxiety dosage to supplement the electronic searches.

The database searches returned at total of articles. Publication titles were reviewed to remove patently irrelevant and duplicate papers, leaving a total of articles selected for abstract review. The full text versions of 48 articles were retrieved and examined for eligibility. A further 34 articles were excluded reasons for exclusion are shown in Figure 1 leaving 14 studies that met the review criteria. A full list of employed grey literature resources is shown in Appendix A.

A request for unpublished data was also published in Magnesium Research [ 57 ] and circulated on Researchgate. A total of 10, citations were screened for relevance. A summary of the grey literature search is shown in Figure 2. The search returned 4 relevant studies which were included in the review. All 4 studies were unpublished in full form at the time of the search. Three internal studies conducted by Sanofi S. A were included in the review. A conference abstract of the Rouillon et al.

Two studies by Caillard [ 6061 ] have not been published. Full data from these studies were provided by Sanofi, France. A short summary of these data has been published ly [ 62 ]. Study De : the experimental des employed in each study were coded as randomised controlled trial RCT ; parallel groups P ; randomised crossover R-Cross ; and non-randomised crossover NR-Cross.

Sample Characteristics: the sample size and composition male Mfemale Fmixed n M: n Fand age meanSD and range reported if available. Treatment: the form when reported and dose of Mg administered and additional ingredients were reported in milligrams mg. Control: the type of control, if employed, administered e.

Duration: the length of time the Mg intervention was administered. : a summary of the analyses including means and SDs if reported of any ificant findings. From the 18 studies meeting the review inclusion criteria, ten recruited mixed sex samples.

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Eight studies that examined the effects of Mg intake on PMS symptomology, and one study assessing postpartum anxiety, recruited female samples.

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