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Volume 69, 6 June Next. Phylogeny of parasitic Platyhelminthes: a critical study of synapomorphies proposed on the basis of the ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and spermatozoa.
Recent cladistic phylogenies of the Platyhelminthes, especially the parasitic species, use for synapomorphies several characters of the spermatozoa, together with other characters. This paper reinvestigates synapomorphies based on sperm characteristics.
The outgroup usually chosen for such studies on the parasitic Platyhelminthes Cercomeria is the "Dalyelliida" or "Dalyellioida," generally considered a paraphyletic group, but sperm structure in this group shows great variation. In this paper, the Typhloplanoida, which have a plesiomorphic structure two free axonemesare considered the outgroup.
One of the synapomorphies recently proposed for the Neodermata is "spermatozoon with axonemes incorporated in the cytoplasm.
A more precise definition of spermiogenesis, based on a detailed description, is proposed in this paper and avoids homoplasies: "proximodistal fusion of the axonemes. The character "absence of dense granules in the spermatozoon" should be considered a synapomorphy for the Neodermata and has almost no homoplasies. For the Temnocephalidea, the spiral pattern of the peripheral microtubule row is proposed as a synapomorphy.
This character is present in Didymorchis ; however, Didymorchis lacks tentacles, which are present in the other genera, and thus the ultrastructural synapomorphy is in conflict with a recently proposed morphological synapomorphy for this group: the presence of tentacles. No synapomorphy of the spermatozoon can be proposed for the Monogenea, but the presence of lateral microtubules lining the axonemes is proposed as a synapomorphy for the polyopisthocotylean Monogenea, and the absence of dorsal and lateral microtubules is proposed as a synapomorphy for the monopisthocotylean Monogenea this is a reversal of the synapomorphy for the Cercomeridea defined above.
The cyclophyllidean Eucestoda show a twisting of the peripheral microtubules of the spermatozoon, which is proposed as a synapomorphy. Effect of ectoparasitism by larvae of the blow fly Protocalliphora parorum Diptera: Calliphoridae on nestling House Wrens, Troglodytes aedon. We investigated the effect of ectoparasitism by hematophagous larvae of the blow fly Protocalliphora parorum on nestling House Wrens Troglodytes aedon over 2 years in north-central Wyoming, U. Mean parasite load was approximately 10 larvae per nestling.
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Nestling tarsus length, primary feather length, and hematocrit measured just before fledging did not differ ificantly with parasite load. Parasites possibly delay the recession in weight that normally occurs as tissues mature late in the nestling stage.
Delayed development may result in increased nestling or fledgling mortality. Cannibalism of nestling American kestrels by their parents and siblings. We examined the frequency of cannibalism of nestling American kestrels Falco sparverius in north-central Saskatchewan. We investigated human disturbance and food shortages as possible causes of it.
Cannibalism of nestlings by their parents and siblings was confirmed by observation and by the presence of partially eaten carcasses, or inferred from the sudden disappearance of a nestling between frequent nest checks. Not all nestlings that died were cannibalized. The chicks that were cannibalized died at a ificantly younger age than those that died but were not cannibalized. The mass and age of the parent and the laying date were not associated with the occurrence of cannibalism.
We found no strong evidence of a causal link between human disturbance and nestling mortality or cannibalism; however, the abundance of small mammal prey was inversely related to the frequency of cannibalism between years, and there were fewer prey and lower prey delivery rates in territories where cannibalism occurred than in territories where nestling mortality did not occur. The fact that some nestlings died but were not eaten suggests that such mortality was unrelated to food shortages.
The food advantage of cannibalism may not outweigh potential disadvantages such as disease transmission. Vocal traditions among resident killer whales Orcinus orca in coastal waters of British Columbia.
Underwater vocalizations were recorded during repeated encounters with 16 pods, or stable kin groups, of resident killer whales Orcinus orca off the coast of British Columbia. Pods were identified from unique natural markings on individuals. Vocal exchanges within pods were dominated by repetitious, discrete calls.
Pods each produced 7—17 mean Individuals appear to acquire their pod's call repertoire by learning, and repertoires can persist with little change for over 25 years. Call repertoires differed ificantly among pods in the resident population.
The 16 pods formed four distinct acoustic associations, or clans, each having a unique repertoire of discrete calls, or vocal tradition. Pods within a clan shared several call types, but no sharing took place among clans. Shared calls often contained structural variations specific to each pod or group of pods in the clan. These variants and other differences in acoustic behaviour formed a system of related pod-specific dialects within the vocal tradition of each clan.
Pods from different clans often travelled together, but observed patterns of social associations were often independent of acoustic relationships. It is proposed that each clan comprises related pods that have descended from a common ancestral group. New pods formed from this ancestral group through growth and matrilineal division of the lineage. The formation of new pods was accompanied by divergence of the call repertoire of the founding Lac des ecorcesquebec adult sex.
Such divergence resulted from the accumulation of errors in call learning across generations, call innovation, and call extinction. Pod-specific repertoires probably serve to enhance the efficiency of vocal communication within the group and act as behavioural indicators of pod affiliation. The striking differences among the vocal traditions of different clans suggest that each is an independent matriline.
A comparison of scolex morphology between the plerocercoid and the adult of Calliobothrium verticillatum Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae. The morphological changes associated with the ontogenetic transformation of the scolex from larva to adult were investigated in the tapeworm Calliobothrium verticillatum Rudolphi, van Beneden, by comparing the morphology of plerocercoids collected from the hermit crab Pagurus pollicaris Say, with that of adult worms collected from the shark Mustelus canis Mitchell,using scanning electron microscopy.
The apex of the scolex in young plerocercoids bore a conspicuous sucker. Each bothridium was flat and divided into four regions: an anterior oval region with two marginal bumps, and three posterior loculi clearly marked by two costae. The microthrix pattern was not determined for very young plerocercoids. The most conspicuous feature of older plerocercoids was the sucker on the apex of the scolex.
The bothridia were concave, and each bore an apical region subdivided into three shallow suckers and three conspicuous loculi. Densely packed blade-like microtriches intermingled with filiform microtriches were visible on all surfaces of the scolex except the surface directly adjacent to the opening of the apical sucker of the scolex, which was entirely devoid of microtriches, and the proximal surfaces of the bothridia, which had only blade-like microtriches.
The apical sucker was absent from the scolex adult specimens. The only remnant of this structure was a small knob on the apex of the scolex. The bothridia were concave and bore, from anterior to posterior, three conspicuous apical suckers arranged in a horizontal row adjacent to one another, two pairs of single-pronged hooks, and three conspicuous loculi.
Densely packed blade-like microtriches were present on all proximal surfaces of the scolex. Microtriches were not present on the distal surfaces of the apical suckers of the bothridia, on the hooks, or on the distal surfaces of the loculi of the bothridia. The latter regions were covered with very small, round structures. The differences in the microthrix components of the various surfaces of the scolex between the plerocercoid and the adult suggest that complex surface changes occur during this phase of ontogeny.
Comparison of the development of this species with that of other onchobothriids suggests that, in general, the of loculi to be expected in the plerocercoid of an onchobothriid is one plus the of posthook loculi in the adult. Maternal adjustment of sex ratio in response to host size in the aphid parasitoid Ephedrus californicus. It has been suggested that sex ratios dependent on host size are unlikely to evolve in parasitoid wasps developing in growing hosts because future host quality would not be predictable at the time of oviposition by the female.
We used logistic regression to estimate the primary sex ratio of a solitary parasitoid of aphid nymphs, using data on offspring sex at the time of adult eclosion.