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Ephedrine is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of low blood pressure during anesthesia Hypotension. Ephedrine may be used alone or with other medications. These are not all the possible side effects of Ephedrine. For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. Ephedrine Sulfate Injection, USP is a sterile solution of 50 mg ephedrine sulfate in water for injection. Ephedrine occurs as fine, white, odorless crystals or powder and darkens on exposure to light.
It is freely soluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol. Its molecular weight is Ephedrine Sulfate Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of allergic disorders, such as bronchial asthma. The drug has long been used as a pressor agent, particularly during spinal anesthesia when hypotension frequently occurs. In Stokes-Adams syndrome with complete heart blockephedrine has a value similar to that of epinephrine. It is indicated as a central nervous system stimulant in narcolepsy and depressive states. It is also used in myasthenia gravis.
The usual parenteral dose is 25 to 50 mg given subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Intravenously, 5 to 25 mg may be administered slowly, repeated in 5 to 10 minutes, if necessary. The usual subcutaneous or intramuscular dose is 0. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
Manufactured by: Ben Venue Laboratories Inc. Bedford, OH With large doses of ephedrine sulfate most patients will experience nervousness, insomniavertigoheadache, tachycardiapalpitation and sweating. Some patients have nauseavomiting and anorexia.
Vesical sphincter spasm may occur and result in difficult and painful urination. Urinary retention may develop in males with prostatism.
Enhanced stimulant and metabolic effects of combined ephedrine and caffeine
When this occurs, patients exhibit such physical s as tachycardia, poor nutrition and hygienefevercold sweat and dilated pupils. Some measure of tolerance may develop with prolonged or excessive use but addiction does not occur. Temporary cessation of medication and subsequent readministration restores its effectiveness.
Concurrent use of ephedrine sulfate with general anesthetics, especially cyclopropane or halogenated hydrocarbons or digitalis glycosides may cause cardiac arrhythmias, since these medications may sensitize the myocardium to the effects of ephedrine sulfate. Therapeutic doses of ephedrine sulfate can inhibit the hypotensive effect of guanethidine, bethanidine, and debrisoquin by displacing the adrenergic blockers from their site of action in the sympathetic neurons.
The effect in man is seen as a relative or a complete blockade of the antihypertensive drug by a sudden rise in blood pressure. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors may potentiate the pressor effect of ephedrine sulfate, possibly resulting in a hypertensive crisis. Special care should be used when administering Ephedrine Sulfate Injection, USP to patients with heart diseaseangina pectorisdiabeteshyperthyroidism, prostatic hypertrophy or hypertension and to patients receiving digitalis.
Prolonged use may produce a syndrome resembling an anxiety state. Tolerance to ephedrine sulfate may develop, but temporary discontinuance to the drug restores its original effectiveness. Also, it is not known whether the drug can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. It is not known what effect Ephedrine Sulfate Injection, USP may have on the newborn or on the child's later growth and development when the drug is administered to the mother just before or during labor.
Ephedrine sulfate is excreted in breast milk. Use by nursing mothers is not recommended because of the higher than usual risk for infants. The principal manifestation of ephedrine sulfate poisoning is convulsions. In acute poisoning the following s and symptoms may occur: nauseavomiting, chillscyanosisirritability, nervousness, feversuicidal behavior, tachycardiadilated pupils, blurred visionopisthotonosspasms, convulsions, pulmonary edemagasping respirations, coma and respiratory failure.
Side effects of ephedrine (oral)
Initially, the patient may have hypertensionfollowed later by hypotension accompanied by anuria. If respirations are shallow or cyanosis is present, artificial respiration should be administered. Vasopressors are contraindicated.
In cardiovascular collapse blood pressure should be maintained. For hypertension, 5 mg phentolamine mesylate diluted in saline may be administered slowly intravenously, or mg may be given orally. Convulsions may be controlled by diazepam or paraldehyde.
Allergic reactions to ephedrine sulfate are rare. The hypersensitivity, if known, is a specific contraindication. Patients hypersensitive to other sympathomimetics may also be hypersensitive to ephedrine sulfate.
Over-the-counter drugs that get abused
Its peripheral actions, which it owes in part to the release of norepinephrine, simulate responses that are obtained when adrenergic nerves are stimulated. These include an increase in blood pressurestimulation of heart muscleconstriction of arterioles, relaxation of the smooth muscle of the bronchi and gastrointestinal tractand dilation of the pupils.
In the bladderrelaxation of the detrusor muscle is not prominent, but the tone of the trigone and vesicle sphincter is increased. Ephedrine sulfate also has a potent effect on the CNS. It stimulates the cerebral cortex and subcortical centers, which s for its use in narcolepsy. The cardiovascular responses reported in man include moderate tachycardiaunchanged or augmented stroke volumeenhanced cardiac outputvariable alterations in peripheral resistance and usually a rise in blood pressure.
The action of ephedrine is more prominent on the heart than on the blood vessels. Ephedrine sulfate increases the flow of coronary, cerebral and muscle blood. In patients with myasthenia gravisadministration of Ephedrine Sulfate Injection, USP produces a real but modest increase in motor power.
The exact mechanism by which ephedrine sulfate affects skeletal muscle contractions is unknown. No information provided.
Can ephedrine be abused and is it addictive?
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Narcolepsy Definition, Symptoms, Treatment, Medication. Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Ghb. Drug Description. What is Ephedrine and how is it used?
It is not known if Ephedrine is safe and effective in children. What are the possible side effects of Ephedrine? Ephedrine may cause serious side effects including: chest pain, and irregular heartbeats Get medical help right away, if you have any of the symptoms listed above. The most common side effects of Ephedrine include: nervousness, anxiety, dizziness, spinning sensation vertigoheadache, nausea, loss of appetite, trouble sleeping, fast heart rate, pounding heartbeats, sweating, vomiting, weight loss, and difficult or painful urination Tell the doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
The structural formula is:.
Children The usual subcutaneous or intramuscular dose is 0. Protect from light. Side Effects.
Drug Interactions. Nursing Mothers Ephedrine sulfate is excreted in breast milk. Treatment If respirations are shallow or cyanosis is present, artificial respiration should be administered. Antidote For hypertension, 5 mg phentolamine mesylate diluted in saline may be administered slowly intravenously, or mg may be given orally. Clinical Pharmacology. Medication Guide. Life with Cancer.